Monday, May 25, 2020

Female Influence in Greek Mythology Essay examples

The ability of women to influence the course of events in Iliad and Odyssey Women have always been an important part of human history since it began. The Greek Myths also show how women, though not as powerful as men, have been able to cause great changes to the course of events. The Trojan of war is one glorified example of it where because of one woman thousands of soldiers died. I would like to talk about such women from the readings that we have done in this course. I shall be talking about Helen of Troy, Kalypso, Circe, Nausicaa and Penelope to show how mortals and immortals have powers of sort but are still inferior to men. We shall talk about the characters from the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, so I shall give a brief background†¦show more content†¦She was able to empower men with her beauty and that is why she is such a powerful character. She was also able to runaway with another man and this in Homeric time was unacceptable but she still does it. Kalypso was the daughter of Atlas and she was a seam nymph in Greek mythology. She, with her powers, empowers Odysseus and enslaves him as she wanted him to marry her. She was able to do so even though Odysseus was much powerful than her. Odysseus loved his wife too much and wanted to go back to her but was not able to do so. Until Athena asks Zeus to free him from the island and let him get back to his beloved wife Penelope. Kalypso only lets Odysseus go when Hermes, messenger of Gods, comes down on Zeus request and tells Kalypso to release him. He finally goes back to his wife after seven years of imprisonment. This shows us that though Kalypso was not a goddess nor as powerful as Odysseus, she was still able to hold him back for seven years. It is also surprising that she was able to confess her love and her desire to have Odysseus for herself. It is also interesting to see that Kalypso is obedient enough to honor Zeus’ wish without creating any troubles for Hermes. Circe is another character of The Odyssey. She lived in forest and was a witch. She was the daughter of the Sun God Helios. Through her powers she turned Odyssey’s crew into pigs. Odyssey with the help of Hermes advice of using the holy herb moly to protect him from Circe’s curse was ableShow MoreRelatedGreek And Roman Painting And Floor Mosaic Essay1228 Words   |  5 PagesAs a student in ARH 270: Introduction to Ancient Art in Greek and Roman Mural Painting and Floor Mosaic, I have developed a greater understanding of art in the ancient Mediterranean world, in regards to ancient Rome and Greece. For the Fall 2016 semester, some of the knowledge that I have gained includes being able to visually analyze a work of art in its historical context. For instance, I have learned to visualize the artwork, This includes, but is not limited to style, technique, relation to previousRead MoreThe Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins1352 Words   |  6 Pagesmost people heard when they were younger, but modernized and turned into a collage of all the best roman and Greek stories. Suzanne Collins brilliantly combined the Greek and Roman influences to make the movie/book unforgettable. By using stories from the romans and Greeks, to the Greek warriors Suzanne Collins demonstrates how she really drew inspiration for the book and movie. Greek influence in the Hunger Games starts with the myth of Theseus and Minotaur. The story is similar as children are forcedRead MoreOlympian Gods of Greek Mythology1012 Words   |  5 PagesGreek mythology is the myths and legends the ancient Greeks centred their lives around. The ancient Greeks used it to explain the events and components of the world around them. Their religion included gods and heroes, creation stories, and the origins of their civilisations and rituals. It is topic that had been studied and examined in great depth for thousands of years. This fascinating religions messages and influences are reflected in today’s modern society, and many similarities can be foundRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Women in The Iliad579 Words   |  3 Pagesrecognized for their strong influence on the actions of men. Because of his love for Delia, Samson told his secret of his power and ended up losing it. In Shakespeares Macbeth, Lady Macbeth urged Macbeth to commit mur der. More recently, Eleanor Roosevelt strongly influenced the decisions that Franklin D. Roosevelt made. Women of Homers epic, The Iliad, were considered primary instigators of the Trojan war. The characteristics attributed to women in ancient Greek mythology may have been key to theRead MoreWomen s Influence On Women1545 Words   |  7 Pageswomen had more rights in places for example they had a bigger role in society compared to that of Greek women in ancient Greece. Women were cogs in a patriarchal dominated society woman were very much under their husbands control according to law and the most important role of women was to raise the children and work at the house with the slaves if they could be afforded. Women could not vote in Greek society, they could not own property, and women could not have much communication with males outsideRead MoreGreek Mythology : A Polytheistic Text And The Book Of Genesis1270 Words   |  6 Pagescultures; Theogony elaborates the beginning of Greek mythology while Genesis centers around the beginning of Judeo-Christian theology. Gods and God both desired power and authority. Power, nonetheless, is perceived and pursued differently across the two aforementioned cultures. The differences in polytheism and monotheism lead to a distinctive perception of the meaning of power. Hesiod’s Theogony signifies the polytheistic nature of Greek mythology, elaborating the chain of events from chaos toRead MoreHeracles: The New Jesus Essay1280 Words   |  6 Pages Most mythologies contain borrowed aspects from older accounts of the same stories. Myths serve to answer the questions mankind was and is unable to answer simply. Because of the yearning for knowledge mankind has always held, those who were looked towards for answers often had similar explanations based on what they were once told. This sharing of information has given historians an array of mythologies from across the world that can be placed on a semi-clear time line as they adapted and partsRead MoreThe Analysis Of Mythology Of The Environment And The Unconscious Mind978 Words   |  4 Pages The analysis of mythology in relation to society establishes a commonality among humanity, as well as the analyzation of various cultural perspectives and values around the world. Thus forth we see the origins of mythology diversely interpreted and analyzed by the context of culture. Myths â€Å"symbolize† and â€Å"embody† human experience in relation to a cultures beliefs and values (Rosenberg, 1999). Despite the various roots in which a myth may originate and or the level of cultural recognitionRead MoreAncient Greek Influence On The Modern World1442 Words   |  6 Pages Ancient Greek Influence on the Modern World Knowledge of ancient Greeks is still influencing the modern world through their advancement and development of government, military, sciences, mathematics, art, and architecture. Centered around perfection of the mind and body, ancient Greek society can be seen through these various areas of their society. The ancient Greek society began with having monarchies and oligarchies, but in 510 AD Athens would create the first democracy (Carr). Athens was ruledRead MoreHercules: A Greek Tale 1014 Words   |  5 Pagesgreatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity. In art Hercules was portrayed as a powerful, muscular man wearing lions skin and armed with a huge club. He was also described as being a macho man buffoon, who was very impulsive. Hercules’ home and birthing place is in Thebes, Greece. Thebes is a city in central Greece. It plays as an important setting in many Greek myths, such as the stories of Cadmus, Oedipus, Dionysus and many other important roles in Greek Mythology. The demigod, Hercules

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Albert Enstein - 1246 Words

Money [pic] Inventors Top of Form [pic]Search Bottom of Form †¢ Inventors †¢ Basics †¢ Intellectual Property †¢ History Bios †¢ †¢ Share †¢ Print Ads: †¢ Albert Einstein †¢ Inventors Help †¢ Einstein Quotes †¢ Patent Invention Idea †¢ Example of Biography Albert Einstein - Biography [pic] By Mary Bellis Photo: Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born in Germany in 1879. He enjoyed classical music and played the violin. One story Einstein liked to tell about his childhood was of a wonder he saw when he was four or five years old: a magnetic compass. The needles invariable northward swing, guided by an invisible force, profoundly impressed the child. The†¦show more content†¦Nuclear reactors, for instance, work because nuclear reactions convert small amounts of mass into large amounts of energy. Top of Form |Subscribe to the Newsletter | |Name |Email | | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | Bottom of Form Related Articles †¢ Einsteins Big Idea - review of the PBS Nova special Einsteins Big... †¢ Einsteins Solution - Einstein †¢ Einstein?s Solution - Einstein †¢ Albert Einstein Biography - Albert Einstein - Physicist - Albert Einstein -... †¢ Einstein Proposes His Theory of Relativity [pic] Mary Bellis Inventors Guide †¢ Sign up for My Newsletter †¢ Headlines †¢ Forum Top of Form Free Inventors Newsletter!Sign Up Bottom of Form Discuss in my forum Ads Pregnancy Tipsstarthealthystayhealthy.inGet best tips on pregnancy. Stay updated with pregnancy tips. CBSE Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10www.SmartLearning.inNCERT Solutions of Maths, Science Social Science English. Join Now. NCERT Class VI to NCERT Maths/Science Syllabus from Home. Register free Advertisement See More About †¢ albert einstein †¢ nuclear †¢ atomic bomb Related Video [pic] Who Is Angel Alcala? [pic] Who Is Garrett Morgan? [pic] Learn About Gregorio Zara More Inventors VideosExplore All Videos Ads Degree in Nuclear Sciencewww.Amity.Edu/NuclearScienceTop faculty, top placement Build A

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Potential for Concurrent Liability

Question: Academics and judges have long debated the overlap between the law of contract and tort and the potential for concurrent liability. Explain? Answer: Contract is nothing but a form of agreement which is made among two or more parties and the agreement give rise to obligations which the parties must follow and are enforceable under the court of law (Andrews, 2011). Three basic elements are being included in the process to form a valid contract which can be enforceable under law. Offer: An offer is the term which is used when he parties are willing to get into a contract with the person in order to form a contract under some specific obligations (Anson, 1899). The parties should have the intention to get into a valid contract. A party who is willing to get into a contract is bound to express his willingness to another party with whom the offer is addressed. However, there must prevail an objective expression to intent by the offeror which must be included in the offer. The terms and conditions of the agreement must be included in the offer so that the parties may clear their obligation. In many cases, the third party is associated during the formation of the contract which may be used as a witness in future. As per English law, offer can be addressed to a specific individual, group or in some cases it can be n organisation also. An offer can be made either in oral form or in written form or may be in both the forms (Beale Tallon, 2002). In various cases it i s being observed that offer made by an oferee is confused with the invitation to treat. In cases of invitation of treat, party make offer in order to invite parties which is different from an offer. Thus, invitation to treat is treated as an advertisement (Elliott Quinn, 2007). This can be stated from the case study, Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 2 QB 256 (Simpson, 1985). Acceptance: An acceptance is referred as the final expression of the party in terms of the offer. If the party t whom the offer is addressed agreed with the terms and conditions which are being implemented in the offer, then the party must accept the offer for getting into the contract which will be enforceable under the court of law (McKendrick, 2005). Thus, it is relevant that the party must agreed with the terms for accepting the offer. From various sources it is noticed that offer must be accepted by conduct. As per the law, acceptance has no legal effect unless and until there prevail no communication among the offeree and offeror. In many cases it is being also notice that the postal acceptance takes place whenever the letter of acceptance is being posted by the offeree (Stone, 2003). Consideration: every valid contract must include the term consideration. This is because according to English contract law, a value must be given against the promise and then only that can be enforceable in law. Consideration must be unconditionally in nature and under the contract law, partial consideration is not being considered therefore the contract cannot be referred as a valid contract (Mulcahy, 2008). Past consideration are not considered in a valid contract. Promise is liable to provide the consideration to the promisor. As per the law, if the promise is made by a party for providing a particular service to the party in lieu of a consideration, but the service is provided by some third party then the promise is not liable to pay to the promisor who did not provide the service (Turner, 2006). It is important for the parties to keep in mind that they have an intention to create and establish a valid contract among each other. A contract can be express or implied in nature depending upon the situation. When a party fails to act as per the obligations which are being implemented in the contract, then the party will be responsible for the breach of the contract. Breach of contract can also be happened by the party when the parties act something which differs from the actions which he should act as per the terms and condition of the contract. Incapacitating oneself is also a major factor which leads the party to breach the terms of the contract. In many situations it is being noticed that the party has breached the contract by selling goods to third party in order to earn more profit. Tort is considered to be a civil wrong. Situations where the law of contract is not applicable, and issues are separate from the terms of contract, the law of tort is implied. Tort is applicable in cases like personal injury, economic losses, harm etc (Brennan, 2011). However, it is also relevant that ruining reputation is also included in the law of tort. Claimants are entitles to receive compensation if the claimant able to provide proofs against the defendant in the court that a tort has been taken place. Various cases of law of tort is associated with the owners of the company and the employers and in this situation if the claimant succeed to prove a tort then they are liable to pay the compensation on their part (Faure, 2009). The defences of volenti is a term which is available for the defendant under the law of tort in places where the defendant wished to show that the plaintiff was also partly liable for the issue which has been arose. Cases where both defendant and the claim ant are both negligent on their part, then there are every chance that the claimant may lose that case. The case studies which are refereed for such situation are as follows: Morris v Murray, OReilly v National Rail and Tramway Appliances. In the case study of Nettleship v Wesrton, a driving instructor has committed an accident which caused injury and this had happened due to the negligence of his pupil. In this particular case study, Lord Denning M.R. stated that Knowledge of the risk of injury is not enough....Nothing will suffice short of an agreement to waive any claim for negligence. The Plaintiff must agree, expressly or impliedly, to waive any claim for any injury that may befall him due to the lack of reasonable care by the defendant: or, more accurately, due to the failure of the defendant to measure up to the standard of care that the law requires of him. (Bingham, 2010) In order to submit the proof for showing that the defendant is associated with action of .negligence, the plaintiff is liable to prove a number of things (Greene, 2012). The first and foremost thing which must be done by the plaintiff is to show the court that the defendant owed the duty of care. The concept of duty of care is being established from the famous case study of Donoghue v Stevenson. In this case study, the house of law has rejected the existing law related to liability of careless behaviour. Thus, the plaintiff have to show the court that the damages which the claimant has suffered was made foreseeable so that the court could find hat a duty of care is exist between the claimant and the defendant. The second thing that the plaintiff must prove is that the defendant has breached the duty of care which is owed by the plaintiff. Then the court will try to find out the standard of care that the defendant owed to the plaintiff (Wils, 2004). The standard of care is determined by the care which is associated with the profession of the individual (Priaulx, 2007). Thus, the balance is being done by the court regarding this standard and the risk factors which are being associated with the duty of care. The most important pat which the plaintiff has to produce in front of the court is that the defendant has breached the duty of care and for that reason the plaintiff has to suffer from damages (Samuel, 2010). Cases where the plaintiff succeed to satisfy the court regarding the damages made by the defendant and suffered by him but still he have to show the court that damages are too remote compare to the negligence of the defendant. Thus, according to the law of tort, he defendant is not liable to repay any kind of damages which he could reasonably have foreseen (Turner, 2011). Relationship is being noticed between law of tort and contract law. The breach of contract is mainly take place because of the breach of duty which must be performed by one of the partner in a contract. Both contract law and law of tort are considered under civil law. Contracts which are being established among the contractor and the client have the option where the law of tort can be raised easily. Though the contract between the contractor and the client is being overlapped still there prevail a duty of care on the part of the contractor. If the contractor have build a bridge ad that bridge was damaged after a year after the termination of contract, then in such situation the contractor will be liable for incurring the damages for the bridge. This is because the contractor should perform the duty of care towards the client. If the bridge got damage because of poor workmanship and material, then the contractor is liable to repay the damages or have to take action for the damage whic h is being incurred by the contractor because he has breached the duty of care though the contract is terminated. The principle which is associated with the action where multiple numbers of defendants will be liable for a particular damage is termed as concurrent liability (Ross, 1987). Therefore, in such situation, plaintiff has the option to act against the multiple numbers of defendants who are being liable for the damages. However, according to the law of UK, there prevail different types of concurrent liabilities which are as follows: Joint enterprise Vicarious liability Non-delegable duties Multiple torts causing the same damage The meaning of the concurrent liability explains the situation where the parties have a contractual as well as tortuous liability. Thus, in many situation t is been proved that liability can be held concurrently from both tort and contract. However, in the case study of Donoghue v Stevenson (1932), Lord Macmillan stated that The fact that there is a contractual relationship between the parties...does not exclude the co-existence of a right of action founded on negligence as between the same parties..... Various ways are prevailed which may rise to various liability and in cases where there lies a contractual relationship between the parties. However, it is relevant from the law of UK that the action which is associated with contractual liability is different from tortuous liability. Among them, concurrent liabilities have strive to take advantages from the rules and principle of torts. The legislation which are associated with common law are ambiguous in nature and therefore, in sit uation where there prevail concurrent liability i9n contract as well as tort, there is a high chances of getting problems because of the ambiguous nature of the legislation of the common law. Thus, the decision has been taken by the court that the liability is referred as the breach of duty which must be performed as per the law of tort and contract and thus it is considered as negligence in the relevant statute. Common law which is prevailed in UK is less consistent in nature. However, when the liabilities are raised from the breach of the contractual duty of care and there is no concurrent liability in tort, then the common law will not be applicable in such situation; rather it will become inconsistent in nature. When it comes to contract elated to construction, then the agreement includes various individual like: developer, agent, contractor, and also the sub-contractor. In this situation, breach of contract can happen in many ways (Burrows, 1995). The obligation which a party i s bound to perform as per the contract if fails to do so then they will be solely responsible for the breach of the contract. Three different ways can be involved which may rise to breach of contract are as follows: partial performance, defective performance and total non-performance. The basic remedies for the breach of contract are to repay the damages which are being made due to the action of the party directly or indirectly. From the case study of Esso v Mardon, it is derived that if the adviser act a negligent when he is under the contractual agreement with the victim, then the victim has the option to sue against the advisor under law of tort. In the case study, of Robinson-v- P E Jones Ltd, the issue of tortuous liability has run concurrently to contractual liability. In this particular case study, issue is related among the employee and the contractor since the time limit of contract is much shorter than the time limit prevailed in tort (Ranjan, et al., 2011). As per the law, liability in tort can be easily extended up to 3 years from the time when the breach of contract is identified. When the contract is being established with any architecture, engineers etc then the contract attracts a concurrent duty of care related to tort against the losses, damages of property or person and also economic losses related to repairs will all lodged against the engineer and the architecture. But it is also relevant from various cases, that the cost of repair will not be the liability of the parties who was associated in the contractual agreement. But their exclusions of liability found under the law. Cases which are related to buildin g contracts, the liability regarding the cost of repair of the building for a certain time period will be considered in the court. Therefore, it has been decided by the court that there will not be any distinction between the professional designer and contractor. Moreover, it is also being referred by the court of UK that the contractor can also be held liable for concurrent duty of care in contract along with in tort for the purpose of economic losses. It is also relevant from various sources that there prevail the term of warranty when it comes to the obligation of the contractor (Visser, 2005). This is because the obligation under which a contractor is bound to act is usually derived from implied or express term of the deed of warranty. As per the rule of the tort, a duty of care must also be implied on the contractor. It is normal that the contract is liable for the construction or designing action, but on the other hand he is also liable for constructing with negligence (O'Sullivan, 2011). However, the liability of the contractor also arises if the defects in the construction are made due to the poor workmanship or by the mixture of poor workmanship and negligence. Thus, the client has the option to sue against the contractor on the basis of the breach of contract and also on the duty of care which is being associated with the tort law. The duty of care is breached by the contractor either due to negligence or due to defective performance or from both and this rise to a liability which is held upon the contractor. Following are the possible reasons for which the contractor fails to meet his obligation which are being included in the contract are as follows: The contractor is liable to carry out his task properly with proper care. However, according to law, the material, goods and workmanship is the responsibility of the contractor and therefore he is bound to put proper effort towards the work (Dowlatshahi, 2001). If any kind of breach of the obligation is held by the contractor, then the contractor have to take liability to incur the cost for recovering the damages done because of him. However, if the client engages other people for getting the job done then also the cost must be barred by the contractor. Any kind of economic losses if incurred by the client that will also be the liability of the contractor as per the law as the contractor have to act as per the duty of care. The court made it pass that just if there is an assumption of obligation in connection to any contract, can a case be made in tort for immaculate economic misfortune (Gendel, 1931). Dissimilar to expert contracts, for example, an engineer's or engineer's arrangeme nt, where there is typically such an assumption of obligation, there will for the most part be no such assumption of obligation in a conventional building contract. The court is not arranged to force a co-broad obligation in tort, just to offer a disenthralled buyer a cure it would not generally have had under its building contract. The court was making careful effort to make it pass that the law of contract is the essential law that represents a relationship in the middle of builder and customer. Besides the standard of 'opportunity of contract' is cherished in our law and ought to be maintained. Hence, if parties openly decide to assign hazard between them by going into a contract, the law of tort ought to be ease back to misshape that position and a case for economic misfortune in tort won't be conceivable (Kramer, 2010). On the off chance that the gatherings decide to bar claims for economic misfortune, for example, the expense of repairs under the terms of their contract, then even where UCTA is pertinent, it is the contract that is the essential determinant of each party's obligations and cures and the prohibition will more often than not be upheld. Reference Andrews, N. (2011) Contract law. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Anson, W. (1899) Principles of the English law of contract and of agency in its relation to contract. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Beale, H. Tallon, D. (2002) Contract law. Oxford [England], Hart Pub. Elliott, C. Quinn, F. (2007) Contract law. Harlow, Pearson Longman. McKendrick, E. (2005) Contract law. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Simpson, A. (1985) Quackery and Contract Law: The Case of the Carbolic Smoke Ball. J LEGAL STUD. [Online] 14 (2), 345. Available from: doi:10.1086/467776. Stone, R. (2003) Contract law. London, Cavendish. Turner, C. (2006) Contract law. London, Hodder Arnold. Bingham, L. (2010) The Uses of Tort. Journal of European Tort Law. [Online] 1 (1), 3-15. Available from: doi:10.1515/jetl.2010.3. Brennan, C. (2011) Tort law. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Faure, M. (2009) Tort law and economics. Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar. Greene, B. (2012) Tort law. London, Hodder Education. Mulcahy, L. (2008) Contract law in perspective. London, Routledge-Cavendish. Priaulx, N. (2007) The harm paradox. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, UK, Routledge-Cavendish. Samuel, G. (2010) Law of obligations. Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar. Turner, C. (2011) Tort law. London, Hodder Education. Burrows, A. (1995) Solving the Problem of Concurrent Liability. Current Legal Problems. [Online] 48 (Part 2), 103-124. Available from: doi:10.1093/clp/48.part_2.103. Dowlatshahi, S. (2001) The role of product safety and liability in concurrent engineering. Computers Industrial Engineering. [Online] 41 (2), 187-209. Available from: doi:10.1016/s0360-8352(01)00054-7. Gendel, M. (1931) Torts: Concurrent but Independent Wrongdoers: Joint Liability for Entire Damages. California Law Review. [Online] 19 (6), 630. Available from: doi:10.2307/3475668. Kramer, A. (2010) Contract law. Oxford, Hart. O'Sullivan, J. (2011) BUILDING CONTRACTS IS THERE CONCURRENT LIABILITY IN TORT?. The Cambridge Law Journal. [Online] 70 (02), 291-294. Available from: doi:10.1017/s0008197311000407. Ranjan, S., Batar, S. Vadakkeveedu, S. (2011) Role of Intention in Fixation of Tortuous Liability. SSRN Journal. [Online] Available from: doi:10.2139/ssrn.1823483. Ross, M. (1987) Concurrent liability in tort and contract. Structural Survey. [Online] 5 (3), 288-299. Available from: doi:10.1108/eb006260. Visser, M. (2005) The concept of concurrent liability and its relationship with the principle of effectiveness. Wils, W. (2004) Concurrent liability of the Community and a Member State. Yule, D. (1977) Concurrent liability in contract and tort. Vancouver, Continuing Legal Education Society of British Columbia.

Monday, March 9, 2020

10 Best Writing Communities You Need to Join Today - Freewrite Store

10 Best Writing Communities You Need to Join Today - Freewrite Store Back in the very early 2000s, when the internet was still young, YouTube didn’t exist, and Facebook was just a twinkle in Mark Zuckerberg’s eye, I joined a Yahoo Group for writers.  Ã‚   Why? I was writing fiction that I wanted to publish online – but first, I wanted to get it peer-reviewed. And not long after I signed up, one of the other writers reached out to me and offered to help me with my 30,000-word novella. She said she saw promise - and some things that needed fixing. I accepted her offer and began an amazing friendship that stands strong to this day.  Ã‚   It still amazes me that this stranger from across the world was willing to give up her time, for free, to help me hone my craft. It took several months of rewrites. She didn’t pull any punches with her feedback, but she was always constructive and kind, and her advice was invaluable, as was the input from the other writers after I finally reached the stage where I was happy to release my story to the wider group.   I’ve been a big fan of online writing communities ever since. If you’ve never joined one before, you might not be aware of the full range of benefits you can get by signing up.    Support   Writing is a pastime (or profession) with a unique set of challenges that only another writer can truly understand. Being part of an online community gives you the chance to interact with others who understand your struggles, frustrations and challenges, and who can offer helpful encouragement and wisdom. It provides you with a group of people with whom you can discuss and explore your ideas and your roadblocks, and who can encourage you to keep going when you’ve hit a creative brick wall.   Critique   When you’re emotionally involved in a piece of writing, it can be hard to assess it objectively. Not sure if your plot makes sense? Do your characters ring true? Are their motivations plausible? Family and friends often lack the technical ability or the courage to provide truly constructive feedback, whereas an online community provides you with a diverse group of writers with a wide range of experience who can help you gain valuable insight on your strengths and weaknesses.   Knowledge   Every writer brings something new to a community in terms of experience, genre, format, perspective, tips, processes and ideas. A writing community gives you a forum to exchange knowledge and take away the most useful tidbits to apply to your own writing. Offering to critique someone’s work can also be a valuable learning experience which gives you exposure to a plethora of writing styles. Many communities also offer their members access to learning resources.   Resilience   One of the things any writer needs to learn to deal with is criticism - no writer is going to be accepted by every publisher or enjoyed by every reader. Writing is a very personal and emotional activity, and it can be  difficult to hear negative things about your work, and scary to share it with strangers. Good writing communities will help you build your resilience to feedback by being constructive, thoughtful and helpful.   Marketing   If you’re going down the self-publishing route, you’ll need some marketing skills, and being part of an online community puts you in contact with other writers who have been there, done that, and can share what has worked for them. Most communities also have avenues through which you can promote your own books to other members.   If you’re keen to experience the support, companionship and knowledge that comes from joining an online writing community, here’s a list of the ten best groups you can join right now:   1.  Scribophile   One of the world’s largest and most active communities, Scribophile operates on a karma system, whereby you have to critique others’ work before you can submit your own. However, if you pay for premium access ($9 per month or $65 per year), you get unlimited submissions and an ad-free experience. Scribophile also offers the opportunity to compete in writing contests (for cash!). All levels of writing ability are welcomed and almost every genre covered.   2.  Insecure Writers’ Support Group   This community was created by sci-fi author Alex Cavanaugh, who realized that there were a lot of lost souls out there scouring the internet for help with their writing. Today, it has a Facebook group with over 4000 members and a mission â€Å"to share and encourage†. The community’s website boasts a wealth of information including links to writing tips, publisher lists, marketing guides and contests. There’s a weekly newsletter and even a free guide to publishing and beyond.   3.  Absolute Write Water Cooler   If you’re looking for a purely forum-style group, then Absolute Write Water Cooler is a great place to start. With almost 68,000 members at the time of writing, it’s extremely active, well moderated, and there are threads on everything from writer’s block and grammar to publishing and freelancing. Plenty of writing formats are covered including podcasts, graphic novels and scriptwriting, to name a few. There are dozens of discussions about writing-related topics to get involved in, and a section where you can find yourself a beta reader, writing buddy or mentor.    4. Chronicles   This community is the largest forum that caters specifically to science fiction and fantasy writers. Aside from the writing forums that offer workshops, critiques, challenges and resources, it’s a great place to discuss the genre as a whole. Topics cover TV and film, featured authors, the publishing industry and more.   5.  The Next Big Writer   If you’re focused on getting your work critiqued, The Next Big Writer offers an international audience of authors – many of them published – to provide you with feedback on your writing and support with every aspect of your craft. This forum isn’t free but comes with a rich list of features for the membership ($8.95 per month, $21.95 per quarter or $69.95 per year) including guaranteed feedback, unlimited posting, access to premium groups, discounts on classes and entry into site competitions.   6.  She Writes   Looking for a supportive community of female writers? She Writes might be the right one for you. It’s the largest online writing community exclusively for women. Once you’ve joined, you can follow specific groups and content topics, post your own blog and read the articles posted by other members (more than 30,000 available). She Writes also operates its own self-publishing platform, where you can invest in professional coaching, editing, e-book creation and printing.   7.  Nanowrimo   Sometimes you need a deadline to give you that extra bit of motivation. Nanowrimo stands for National November Writing Month. Started in 1999 by freelance writer Chris Baty, it’s an online novel-writing challenge held from 1–30 November every year, with the objective of writing a 50,000-word novel. The community aspect comes in the form of camaraderie across social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter, and you can also join theNanowrimo forums to discuss all aspects of the novel writing process and share your journey with other participants. If the timing and word count don’t suit, tryCamp Nanowrimo instead, which holds virtual writers’ retreats in April and July for projects of any format and length.   8.  Talentville   Screenwriters – this community’s especially for you. Talentville is designed to help aspiring screenwriters not only hone their craft through collaboration and education but also to build connections within the industry. With over 10,000 screenwriters and more than 200 industry professionals registered, one of Talentville’s goals is to actively promote worthy work to agents, managers and producers. Membership ranges from free (with posting limitations) to $99 per year.   9.  Agent Query Connect   If you’ve already finished your manuscript, this online social network could be your best choice. It specializes in helping you get your book published, with discussion topics and helpful resources covering everything from writing query letters and finding agents to self-publishing and promotion. You can even get your query letter peer-reviewed.   10.  Reddit   Reddit is a vast social network made up of subreddits that focus on every topic imaginable, and there are plenty of writing-related discussion boards in which you can participate. It’s free, and sometimes unmoderated, but great if you have a very niche area of interest or are looking for a large and diverse group. With almost 700,000 subscribers, r/writing is a great place to start.    BONUS: 11. Freewrite Insiders Our Freewrite Insider group has over 30,000 writers all over the world who are serious about improving their writing process.   From free resources, quality content, and exclusive discounts on the latest writing tools, this is one  email newsletter that every writer who is serious about their craft needs to be part of.  Ã‚         About the author: Claire Wilkins is a freelance copywriter and editor from New Zealand. She loves to write about travel, health, home, and proper punctuation. After a career in financial services spanning almost three decades, Claire left the corporate world behind to start Unmistakable - her writing and editing business. She creates website copy, blogs, and newsletters for creative agencies and small businesses, and  specialises  in polishing existing content until it shines. In her spare time, Claire enjoys cloud-spotting, singing in the car and editing video.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

How Media Coverage of War Affects Presidents and Their Policy Making Research Paper

How Media Coverage of War Affects Presidents and Their Policy Making - Research Paper Example The media has played an enormous role in the war on terror. The intricate and detailed coverage of the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center were seen by the entire world and led to an extremely emotional response from the American people. The images were associated with terrorism and the knee jerk response of most Americans called for bombing anyone who was responsible for such a hideous act, thus forming the base for any violent response from the US government. This paper shall underline the importance of the media in the coverage and conduct of Warfare, how terrorist groups use the media to spread their message, how the media uses terrorists to further their objectives and the impact of these events on government policy matters. The importance of Media in the Coverage and Conduct of the War: The media has become an important factor in the war on terrorism. The war not only takes place in Afghanistan, but has repercussions for the millions of viewers witnessing the events first ha nd(Shpiro 2002). The 9/11 attacks have dramatically changed the perceptions of millions around the world on terrorism and perceived threats. Modern wars take place as much on TV screens as on the battlefield. Media coverage not only influences public opinion, it also has a lasting impact on national government policy decisions(Shpiro 2002). The technological enhancement that has taken place in the latter half of the 20th century and the 21st century has enabled the media to broadcast, report and inform the masses of what is happening on ground immediately after the occurrence of the event. While the events of the world wars could be censored, abandoned or edited significantly before they reached audiences, such actions are not possible with the advent of modern technology and the race for ratings between media outlets that demands immediate coverage. An important impact of the increase in the influence of media is that military operations have significant elements of media policy. T he speed of the coverage of events means that policy decisions regarding the media need to be made ahead of the event. These policies are the ways in which the military and political leadership handle media aspects of conflicts. The range of these policies encompasses decisions on matters such as censorship, legal restrictions, abandonment of coverage, etc. This policy sets to further the political aims of warfare. Warfare media policies have been a subject of considerable research throughout the 20th century. These policies developed in several phases throughout the last three decades of the 20th century. Before the tremendous technological enhancements, governments sought to censor the flow of any form of information from the battlefields. Both of the world wars saw censorship and controlled coverage rule the flow of information. The purpose of this strategy was to identify the specific news that could be covered and avoid embarrassments. The media was also used for propaganda to justify government actions. The impact of the Vietnam War: The Vietnam War was the first major conflict that brought the bloodshed on the TV screens of the common man. The coverage of the war was very close to real time and Americans felt the pain that the people of Vietnam went through throughout the conflict. The policy set at the outset of the conflict sought to give journalists free access to the entire conflict. The policy was set without due consideration to the political repercussions of comprehensive